Primary Immune Deficiency and Oral Health

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Children with Primary Immune Deficiency (PID) are particularly subject to development of periodontal dise

ase. According to a new study. PID diseases (more than 200 in number) are genetic disorders that compromise the immune system. Compromised immune systems make people with PID subject to a number of serious infections. One of these infections is Epstein-Barr Virus, which often increases the risk of cancer. Some of the diseases are terminal.

PID can be diagnosed in people of all ages, whether the disorder is inherent at birth or acquired at some later time. It affects approximately 1 in 10,000 people, and is most commonly found in children.

Children are born with no natural protection from the oral microbiota that cause periodontal disease. This, combined with an immune system that is compromised by PID, makes them patients more likely to develop severe infections and to develop periodontal disease. PID also makes these children less likely to benefit from periodontal treatment. As a result of ineffective periodontal treatment, many patients experience early tooth loss.

The report of the study concluded, “children with PIDs have a more severe response to dental caries, which can potentially lead to advanced periodontal disease. However, if the PID is controlled and good oral hygiene and interceptive treatment are achieved early on, the high susceptibility does not necessarily result in tooth loss.”

The researchers suggest that further study is needed to better understand the connection between PID and periodontitis and other oral diseases in order to improve PID disease management and dental care and prevention of disease.

If you, your child, or another family member has PID, it is important to inform your dentist and work actively to prevent and manage oral effects of the disease.